Argentina 71 Venezuela 76 Finalizado BRONCE
Mexico 86 Canada 87 Finalizado SEMIFINAL
Argentina 78 Mexico 70 Finalizado SEMIFINAL
Canada 78 Venezuela 79 Finalizado Ronda 2
Mexico 95 Argentina 83 Finalizado Ronda 2
Uruguay 69 Puerto Rico 80 Finalizado Ronda 2
Dominicana 103 Canada 120 Finalizado Ronda 2
Panama 62 Venezuela 75 Finalizado Ronda 2
Mexico 73 Canada 94 Finalizado Ronda 2
Panama 71 Puerto Rico 78 Finalizado Ronda 2
Venezuela 75 Uruguay 77 Finalizado Ronda 2
Argentina 92 Dominicana 84
- NCAA (I Div)
- CBA (Continental Basketball Association)
- ULEB Euroleague
- ULEB Eurocup
- Liga Adriatica
- Bundesliga (Alemania)
- LNB (Argentina)
- TNA (Argentina)
- NBL (Australia)
- WNBL (Australia)
- CNBM (Brasil)
- Libsur (Chile)
- CBA (China)
- KBL (Corea del Sur)
- BasketLigaen (Dinamarca)
- ABASACA (Rep. Dominicana)
- ACB - Liga Endesa (España)
- LEB Oro (España)
- Liga Femenina (España)
- PBA (Filipinas)
- Korisliiga (Finlandia)
- Naisten Korisliiga (Finlandia)
- LNB (Francia)
- BBL (Gran Bretaña)
- ESAKE A1 Ethniki (Grecia)
- FEB Eredivisie (Holanda)
- KKI (Islandia)
- Ligat Ha'Al (Israel)
- Lega Basket Serie A (Italia)
- Lega Due (Italia)
- LKL (Lituania)
- BasketLigaen (Noruega)
- NBL (Nueva Zelanda)
- PLK (Polonia)
- BSN (Puerto Rico)
- Mattoni NBL (Republica Checa)
- BasketLigan (Suecia)
- TBL (Turquia)
- LPB Venezuela
- Ex Liga RFS Yugoslavia
NBA: How the business works
Every sports league in the area in which they work, can be categorized according to two aspects: the degree of self-management and its constitution. By self-management we mean a term that includes but is not limited to the degree of independence from the federation which depends.
The constitution of a league determines its nature. This can be of three forms, as well:
The NBA is an entirely independent and fully self-managed entity, who works privately, outside the American Federation (U.S. Basketball). It is an organization conceived as a "Limited Corporation" whose members (the teams, currently 30 at the end of the current season) are franchises, which in turn are corporations themselves: that is, we're talking about real anonymous societies that represents together a giant holding company.
Scenarios for comparison
The Lega Italiana di Pallacanestro (commonly called Lega Basket Serie A) was in the 1969-70 season, the first European league to have its first division clubs grouped in an association of self-managed clubs, and in the Italian case eventually became a private corporation. While its constitution provides for a mixed regime between partners that are companies and partners that are just clubs, through the years the latter ones also became companies formed but rather a matter of law to benefit from the market and compete on equal terms. Although the Italian Lega is -and responds legally- as a corporation, although not being dependent if the Italian Federation, it’s subject to strong regulation.
However, the star case different to the NBA is without a doubt the Spanish ACB. Like most European leagues, it was created based on the teams that competed in the first division of the Federation the year immediately before. The model, although it was copied from the NBA, was the base model that created the "association of clubs" league who then would copy, among others, the Argentine LNB (1985).
The ACB League began its operations in the 1983-84 season. Originally started as an association of clubs, however, it would be from the 1991-92 season, with the sanction of the Spanish Sports Act, when it produces a revolution in every sense. This law forced all clubs who haven’t any surplus in every one of the previous five financial years to becoming sports corporations. The qualitative leap in the management of Spanish clubs occurs when they -despite the abrupt change- continue to exercise (and progressively increase) its social function. That is, 100% company vision, without ceasing to be a club. The league itself legally constitutes a corporation and follows the model of management of the NBA.
American League: 0% club, 100% company
Common contract model
Each team wishing to enter the NBA shall deposit a fee to the league whose price has changed over the time, but which is around 300 million dollars. This is a fee for participating, and the waiting time to enter is five years from the time the royalty payment have been in effect. It will generate interests exclusively in favour of the league and it’s not refundable as the team stays in it. Meanwhile, the candidate must, among other things, to overcome very exhaustive financial controls, generate activities, submit a business plan and marketing plan both locally and nationally, and also, during those five years of "layoff", generate a surplus in each of these five periods. The total budget for business plan is set at a minimum of $ 240 million and that includes but is not limited to the total payroll of employees of the organization.
NBA has its own player market, which operates in a very different way than FIBA. Every player has its own market value, represented by the salary he perceives in a current season. When a transfer between two NBA teams takes place, the regular process is to swap players who represent a similar amount of money. Cash only is allowed to fill the gaps, and, at the end of the current Collective Bargaining Agreement, this amount could not exceed of approximately 3 million dollars.
The real problem relies when a FIBA player wants to play in an NBA team. Under the terms of the international market, we use to, either pay the total transfer amount or waiting until he ends his contract and thus be released as a free agent. FIBA players, in many cases, have termination clauses and often very high, as they intend to protect the interests of their club of origin. Well, the NBA, until more than twenty years ago almost prohibitive for those players "from outside" (i.e., foreigners only were allowed if they came from the NCAA tournament), was obliged to reconcile both systems, establish a ceiling for termination clauses for FIBA players of "only" half a million dollars per player.
Players emerging from the college tournament at the end of those four years are chosen according to their level and the higher the position the player has a better chance of being hired by the professional league next year. However, the NBA draft through the years, for obvious reasons, became a worldwide "showcase", allowing every year more and more players who play in FIBA clubs, to register massively to the draw with college players.
Normally the choice order used to be the inverse of how they have finished the regular season last year; however, through the years, the highest positions are protected by a "lottery" that gives the teams more proportional chances.
Each team in the NBA (i.e. the sum of all of the players’ annual salaries) can not exceed a certain limit, we can call this the first "threshold", and up to the 2009-10 season it was set to around 58 million. However, there are several mechanisms known as "exceptions" that can overcome the first limit because it is guaranteed to a player of certain conditions to collect the minimum required for each case. For example we have the "rookie exception" (the salary of a first-year player), the "mid-level exception" (the annual average wage), the "bi-annual exception", the "Larry Bird exception", exceptions for transferred players and serious injury replacements, etc.
The luxury tax
Sign and trade agreements
When a team is willing to contract a free agent, and the original team wants something in exchange, being money or players, the best for both clubs is a sign-and-trade agreement. This occurs when a team signs one of his free agents and immediately transferred to another team. This kind of agreements are very profitable such for the implied teams as for the player, whereas he will obtain a better contract than initially could; the selling club gets something in exchange, and the buying team gets the desired player.
Matias Barmat (@worldhoopstats)
Lecturas: 7941 - 2011-08-21
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